Indian Independence and importance of Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Pre Independece History of Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Ancient relics and monuments reminds one of the years of struggle and perseverance that made India an independent country. Andaman Islands is best known as Kalapani by fellow Indians. But interestingly few know that it once also suffered under the brutal rule of Japanese. The cellular jail epitomises the Indian glory with past and present.

The British Regime

The History of the British in the Andaman and Nicobar islands began in 1788 when Lord Cornwallis, the then Governor General of India, thought of colonizing the islands and instructed Lt. Archibald Blair and Lt. R H. Colebrook of the Royal Navy to Survey the islands and submit a report on their suitability for a British Colony.

According to the recommendation of these two officers the first British settlement was founded in 1789 on Chatham Island.  The settlement was later abandoned in 1796. After the Great Revolt in 1857, the British Government thought of establishing a penal settlement here. In March 1858, the first penal settlement was established when Suptd. J.B. Walker arrived with 200 prisoners, mostly rebels from the Indian Army (Sepoy Mutiny 1857). Initially the convicts were kept in a jail at Viper island, which is about 15 minutes boat ride from Port Blair. The island had a jail, gallows, Kutcheri, Doctor's residence, etc.

Subsequently, this Jail was abandoned and the Cellular Jail at Port Blair was constructed. During the time of successive Superintendents, E. H. Man, General Steward, and Col. Cadell, the number of convicts increased and they were subjected to inhuman tortures at the hands of the British jailors. The foundation of the famous Cellular Jail was laid in 1896. The building was completed in 1906. The inhuman tortures were abandoned during the regime of Colonel Ferrar , many changes, both in policy and practice, took place during his time, which included concession to the convicts, mainland visit, etc.

The convicts came to 'kalapani' from various movements during freedom struggle. Some noteworthy movements were : National revolutionary movements like 'The Wahabi Movement' (1830 - 1869), 'Mopla Rebellion' (1792 - 1947), 'First Rampa Rebellion' (1878 - 1879), 'Second Rampa Rebellion' (1922 - 1924), 'Tharawadi Peasant Rebellion' , 'Burma Rebellion' (1930).
          Freedom fighters involved in famous cases and movements like Gadar Party Revolutionaries (1914), Assembly Bomb Case (1929), The Second Lahore Conspiracy Case, The Chittagong Revolt (1930) were also deported to Andaman.

The Japanese Regime : 1942 -1945

World War II brought another series of changes in the life of the Andaman Islands. During the War, the Japanese occupied Andamans on March 21, 1942 and kept the region under their effective control till October 7, 1945. Initially the Japanese behaved cordially towards the locals, but became harsh and suspicious after instances came to their notice of some locals maintaining contacts with the British.

As a result large number of innocent people (mostly highly educated) were killed. One such place where the massacre occurred is HumfreyGunj (Now - Humphrey Gunj Martyrs Memorial), where many men were half buried and shot to death. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose arrived in Port Blair on December 29, 1943 and was given a ceremonial welcome. He hoisted the National Flag at Port Blair on 30th Dec. 1943 for the first time during the British regime in India. The naval blockade by the Allied forces created an acute food crisis and the Japanese compelled the local people to bring more land under cultivation. They constructed roads, bunkers and buildings. On October 8, 1945, the Japanese surrendered to the South East Asia Command of British at Port Blair. The japanese POWs were taken to Singapore to face the trials for their war crimes.

Japanese sentenced at Singapore for their War Crimes committed in Andaman and Nicobar Islands

List of Japanese sentenced in 1946 for their war crimes

#Name of accusedRankCrimeTrial Date Sentence
1Harada, KunichiLieutenantKilling 9 Burmese civiliansMarch 1946 Death by hanging
2Ushijiwa, KatsuichiSub LieutenantKilling 9 Burmese civiliansMarch 1946 Death by hanging
3Yanagimoto, SeiichiSub LieutenantKilling 9 Burmese civiliansMarch 1946 Death by hanging
4Sato, TamenoriMajor Generalcapture and killing of 61 Burmese civiliansMarch 1946 Death by hanging
5Kiyomoto, TakuichColonelcapture and killing of 61 Burmese civiliansMarch 1946 15 years imprisonment
6Tazawa, KeizoLieutenant Colonelcapture and killing of 61 Burmese civiliansMarch 1946 Death by hanging
7Ishida, TadashiLieutenantcapture and killing of 61 Burmese civiliansMarch 1946 1 year imprisonment
8Baba, IkuoLieutenantcapture and killing of 61 Burmese civiliansMarch 1946 1 year imprisonment
9Tamura, ShinjiCaptainExecution of 152 civilians in Tamugli Island March 1946 2 years imprisonment
10Itsuki, ToshioMajor GeneralExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 Death by shooting
11Ogura, KenjiPaymaster Lieutenant CommanderExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 12 years imprisonment
12Ueda, MitsuharuCaptainExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 15 years imprisonment
13Sakagami, ShigeoLieutenant ColonelExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 3 years imprisonment
14Sumi, ToyosaburoCaptainExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 10 years imprisonment
15Muneyuki, YasuoCaptainExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 12 years imprisonment
16Kita, TomioWarrant OfficerExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 Death by hanging
17Arai, Mitsui1st Class Petty OfficerExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 10 years imprisonment
18Matsuoka, HachirochonSergeant MajorExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 Death by hanging
19Torii, KazuoLance CorporalExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 10 years imprisonment
20Nakazawa, TawakichiCorporalExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 10 years imprisonment
21Kimura, HisaoSuperior PrivateExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 Death by hanging
22Ono, MinoruSuperior PrivateExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 10 years imprisonment
23Uchida, MasahiroInterpreterExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 Death by hanging
24Yasuda, MuncharuInterpreterExecution of more than 80 Nicobarese March 1946 Death by hanging
25Teizo, HaraVice AdmiralAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 Death by hanging
26Jochi, RyonosukeCivil GovernorAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 Life imprisonment
27Shimazaki, ShigeichiCaptainAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 Death by hanging
28Uchida, MinoruPaymaster Lieutenant CommanderAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 Death by hanging
29Toyoshima, TanejiLieutenantAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 Death by hanging
30Tsuruta, SoichiSub LieutenantAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 Death by hanging
31Tanioka, YoshiteruSub LieutenantAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 Death by hanging
32Tayonaga, SatoichiWarrant OfficerAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 Life imprisonment
33Uchimura, SasaoMurgimasterAbandon people in a remote Island to dieMarch 1946 3 years imprisonment
34Nadamoto, HideoCivilianCivilian torture and KillingMarch 1946 Life imprisonment
35Monobe, YukitakaCivilianCivilian torture and KillingMarch 1946 15 years imprisonment
36Moriguchi, YasuoCivilianCivilian torture and KillingMarch 1946 15 years imprisonment
37Takayoshi, EizoCivilianCivilian Killings at NancowryApril 1946 Death by hanging
38Minoru, KanekoChief Petty OfficerBrutal beating and Killing of a civilianApril 1946 Death by hanging
39Yamanie, NiheiChief Petty OfficerBeating a civilian leading to deathApril 1946 Life imprisonment
40Kojima, HisajiroTechnical Sub-LieutenantKilling Indonesian civilian labourers at NancowryApril 1946 Life Imprisonment
41Asai Kenichi2nd Class SeamanKilling Indonesian civilian labourers at NancowryApril 1946 Death by hanging
42Furukawa IchijiPetty OfficerFor Killing Shahzad MirAug 1946 Life Imprisonment
43Matsushita KoichiSeamanFor Killing Shahzad MirAug 1946 15 years Imprisonment
44Awakuni, RiyosukeLeading SeamanKilling Chet Ram and Fateh MohamedApril 1946 Death by hanging
45Yamaguchi, Haruo2nd Class Petty OfficerKilling Chet Ram and Fateh MohamedApril 1946 Death by hanging
46Tsuruoka, ShirooCorporalBrutal beating of 2 civiliansApril 1946 18 months Imprisonment
47Nagaosa, HirioChief Petty OfficerKilling numerous people in JailMay 1946 Death by hanging
48Tada, MiyoshiPetty OfficerKilling numerous people in JailMay 1946 Death by hanging
49Ozaki, FukuichiChief Petty OfficerKilling numerous people in JailMay 1946 Death by hanging
50Okumura, SenichiSergeant.Killing numerous people in JailMay 1946 15 years imprisonment
51Hayashi, YasuoSergeant.Killing numerous people in JailMay 1946 15 years imprisonment
52Mitsubishi, MataichiCivil AdministratorKilling numerous people in JailMay 1946 Death by hanging
53Hashida, SusumuCivil AdministratorKilling numerous people in JailMay 1946 Death by hanging
54Komaba, KanekechiCivilianTouture and Killing of farmersApril 1946 10 years imprisonment
55Yoshida, Susumi Chief Petty OfficerBeating a civilian Subaiya to deathMay 1946 10 years imprisonment
56Takayanani, Yoshinobu2nd Class Petty OfficerBeating a civilian to deathMay 1946 Death by hanging
57Nakano, ChuujiSuperior Petty OfficerBeating civilian to deathMay 1946 Death by hanging
58Tagawa, MasaoPvt. Company employeeBeating 3 civilians resulting in death of 1May 1946 10 years imprisonment
59Miyazaki, YoshijiroPvt. Company employeeBeating 3 civilians resulting in death of 1May 1946 8 years imprisonment
60Tsukasa, SomejiPvt. Company employeeBeating 3 civilians resulting in death of 1May 1946 Life imprisonment
61Obara, YoshiyukiPvt. Company employeeBeating 3 civilians resulting in death of 1May 1946 10 years imprisonment
62Sugihara, AkiraLieutenantbeating and torture of civilians leading to death May 1946 Life imprisonment
63Mikami, YoshiharaInterpreterbeating and torture of civilians leading to death May 1946 7 years imprisonment
64Kojima, TakeharuShip building SupervisorTorture of civilians leading to death May 1946 Death by hanging
65Kobayashi, MatsuoCaptainTorture and killing of civilians at Nancowry May 1946 4 years imprisonment
66Fujita, MatsuoCivilian. InterpreterTorture and killing of civilians at Nancowry May 1946 3 years imprisonment
67Miora MitsuyoshiChief Petty OfficerKilling 2 civilian cooliesMay 1946 Death by hanging
68Sakurada TatsugoroCivilianKilling 2 civilian cooliesMay 1946 Death by hanging
69Fukumoto Yukiwo2nd Class Petty OfficerKilling 2 civilian cooliesMay 1946 Death by hanging
70Goda NoburuWarrant OfficeFor Killing 4 civiliansMay 1946 Death by hanging
71Taniguchi, BunshiroCivilianKilling 5 indian cooliesMay 1946 5 years imprisonment
72Sawane, HatsutaroCivilianKilling 5 indian cooliesMay 1946 Death by hanging
73Uchimura, SadaoCivilianKilling 5 indian cooliesMay 1946 Death by hanging
74Hashimoto, MinoruLieutenantBrutal civilian killings by burning and shootingMay 1946 Death by hanging
75Kurosawa, SadaoCorporaBrutal civilian killings by burning and shootingMay 1946 Death by hanging
76Tanaka, RenjiChief Petty OfficerBeating civilian Hari Dass to deathJune 1946 Death by hanging (committed suicide after sentence)
77Nakayama, HarumiChief Petty OfficerBeating civilian Hari Dass to deathJune 1946 Death by hanging
78Fujie, TakeoChief Petty OfficerBeating civilian Hari Dass to deathJune 1946 Death by hanging
79Kuboki NoboruCivilianKilling 4 Civilian cooliesJune 1946 Death by hanging
80Osada, YasueCivilianKilling 2 CiviliansJune 1946 4 years imprisonment
81Hirakawa, MitsukiLieutenantKilling Mr. BirdJune 1946 10 years imprisonment
82Egami, Masao.LieutenantKilling Mr. BirdJune 1946 10 years imprisonment
83Hagane, KiyoharuCivil policeWater torture and brutal beating leading to deathJune 1946 Death by hanging
84Matsuoka, IsamuChief Petty OfficerKilling a School TeacherJune 1946 Death by hanging
85Sasahara, HideakiLieutenantKilling Hussein GulabMay 1946 2 years imprisonment
86Yatsuzuka, MinoruChief Petty OfficerKilling Hussein GulabMay 1946 1 year imprisonment
87Ozaki, ShigeruChief Petty OfficerKilling Hussein GulabMay 1946 6 months imprisonment
88Iida KiyojiSergeantHumfreyGunj MassacreJuly 1946 10 years imprisonment

Japanese Bunkers

We provide Information only !

ExploreAndaman.com is one of the oldest yet updated website on Andaman and Nicobar Islands. We are not tour operators and have no commercial interests so far !

 

 

The Viper Island